The Enormous Potential of Cities to Reduce GHG Emissions, 571 Strategies Adopted by 44 Cities Around the World

571 Strategies To Reduce GHG Emissions Adopted by 44 Cities

This site has previously focused primarily on the obligations of nations, organizations, and citizens around the world to respond to climate change at levels consistent with their ethical and moral obligations as well as with the ethical and moral problems with most arguments made by opponents of  climate change policies.  While national responses to climate change for the most part remain frighteningly inadequate, many local governments around the world have started to step up to reduce GHG emissions sometimes at surprisingly ambitious levels. The following paper identifies 571 strategies that 44 cities have adopted to achieve their emissions reduction commitments. Many cities are reducing GHG emissions while claiming they are saving money and often improving the  quality of life and sometimes creating jobs.

571 Examples of Strategies to Reduce GHG Emissions at the Local Governmental Level From 44 Cities Around the World

Donald A. Brown

Scholar in Residence and Professor

Widener University Commonwealth Law School

This paper relies on the research of Brett Flower, Jaclyn Kartley, Stacey Lindsay, Tyler Semler, Widener University Commonwealth Law School Students, and Analyn Avila, Jason Bailey, Colin Bloomfield, Priyanka Chakraborty, Victoria Edmonds, and Ina Holm Johansen, University of Auckland Law School Students

  1. Introduction

All around the world, local governments are beginning to step up to reduce the threat of climate change creating some hope that the world could begin to take action at the civilization challenging levels necessary to avoid catastrophic human-induced climate change impacts. The Secretariat for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change website identifies 2508 cities that have made specific commitments to reduce GHG emissions.[1]

This paper identifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets and strategies that have been adopted to achieve these targets by 44 cities around the world.

This paper’s identification of hundreds of strategies adopted by 44 cities demonstrates that local governments are innovating to find creative strategies to reduce the enormous threat of climate change and thereby implementing novel GHG reduction tactics, many of which cannot be taken by higher levels of government including state, regional, and national governments. Because local governments are working at a scale closer to most people and businesses that are responsible for GHG emissions, local governments are often in an optimal position to work closest with those most responsible for GHG emissions.

This paper includes the following sections:

(1) List of cities and targets,

(2) Identification of strategies adopted by these cities arranged in the following categories:

  1. 15 strategies for building green buildings,
  2. 55 strategies for reducing energy use in buildings,
  3. 19 other strategies for reducing energy use in general,
  4. 37 strategies for increasing renewable energy,
  5. 16 strategies to increase energy efficiency,
  6. 10 energy ordinance strategies,
  7. 143 strategies to reduce GHG emissions from transportation,
  8. 18 lighting transformation strategies,
  9. 32 strategies for managing waste disposal,
  10. 51 land use planning strategies,
  11. 19 miscellaneous tactics for reducing GHG emissions,
  12. 71 strategies for educating citizens,
  13. 38 strategies for incentivizing private sector GHG emissions reductions,
  14. 22 funding strategies to reduce GHG reduction emissions,
  15. 25 cooperative government climate strategies; and.

(3) Thirty Conclusions from this Analysis.

          I. Cities and reduction targets:

  1. Addis Ababa, reduce GHG output by 64% from business as usual projections by 2030.[2]
  2. 67% reduction of CO2 by 2035 in comparison to 2005[3]
  3. Amsterdam, by 2025, a 40 % reduction of CO2 compared to 1990 followed by 75% reduction by 2040.[4]
  4. Austin, net zero carbon by 2050,[5] 35% of its energy produced from renewables by 2020 and divest Austin of ownership in coal-generated facilities.[6]
  5. Berkeley, cut GHGs to 33% below 2000 levels by 2020, 80% reduction by [7]
  6. Berlin, reduce GHG emissions by 85% compared to 1990 levels by 2050, 40% compared to 1990 levels by 2020.[8]
  7. Bogotá, 62% GHG reductions by 2050.[9]
  8. Boston, 80% below 2005 CO2 levels by 2050, with an interim goal of 25% reduction by 2020.[10]
  9. Boulder, 80% reductions of CO2 below 2005 levels by 2050,[11]100% renewable electricity by 2030.[12] Finally, reduce organizational GHG emissions 80% below 2008 levels by 2030.[13]
  10. Brussels, 30% reduction of CO2 compared to 1990 levels by [14]
  11. Buenos Aires, 30% GHG reductions by 2030.[15]
  12. Calgary, 20% CO2below 2005 by 2020 and 50% below1990 by 2036.[16]
  13. Chicago, 80% reduction of CO2 below 1990 levels by 2050, with an interim goal of 25% below 2005 levels by 2020.[17]
  14. Copenhagen, achieving carbon neutrality by 2025.[18]
  15. Dublin, 13% reduction from 2005 CO2 levels by 2020.[19]
  16. Durban, 30% reduction of CO2 by 2020 from 1990 levels.[20]
  17. Edmonton, by 2035 35% GHG reductions below 2005 levels,[21]
  18. Hiroshima, 30% reduction of CO2by 2030 from 1990, by 2050 70% reduction from 1990.[22]
  19. London, reduce CO2 by 60% from 1990 by 2025, 80% by 2050.[23]
  20. Los Angeles, 45% reduction of CO2 by 2025, 60% by 2035, and 80% by 2050 from 1990 levels.[24]
  21. Melbourne, 100% CO2 reduction by 2020.[25]
  22. Minneapolis 15% CO2 reduction by 2015, 30% by 2025.[26]
  23. Nashville, 70 % CO2 reduction by 2050.[27]
  24. New York, 30% CO2 reduction below 2006 by 2017,[28] 80% by 2050, 40% by 2030. [29]
  25. Oslo, 50% CO2 reduction below 1991 levels by 2020; 95% below 1991 by 2030, 100% below 1991 by 2050.[30]
  26. Perth, 20% CO2 reduction by 2020 in comparison to 2011-2012, 32% by 2031.[31]
  27. Phoenix, carbon neutrality by 2020.[32]
  28. Philadelphia, 80% CO2 reduction from 1990 levels by 2050.[33]
  29. Pittsburgh, 20% CO2 reduction below 2003 levels by 2023.[34]
  30. Portland, 80% CO2 reduction from 1990 levels by 2050, interim goal of 40% reduction by 2030.[35]
  31. Quito, 30 % CO2 reduction CO2 by 2025. [36]
  32. Rio de Janeiro. 16 % CO2 reduction CO2 by 2016 and 20% by 2020 by considering 2005 as the baseline[37].
  33. Rotterdam, 50% reduction CO2 by 2050.[38]
  34. San Francisco requires individual departments in the city to develop annual climate action plans outlining steps to decrease GHG emissions.[39] The target for all departments is 25% reduction by 2017, 40% reduction by 2025, and an 80% reduction by 2050 all from 1990 levels.[40]
  35. Seattle, carbon neutrality by 2050.[41]
  36. Seoul, 25% reduction by 2020, 40% below 2005 by 2030.[42]
  37. Shenzen, 45% CO2 reduction in carbon intensity by 2020 to reach 0.81 tCO2 /CNY 1000.[43]
  38. Singapore, 36% GHG reductions by 2030 from 2005 levels,[44]
  39. Stockholm, net-zero by 2040 and fossil fuel free by 2050.[45]
  40. Sydney’s 70% CO2 reductions below 2006 levels by 2030.[46] The properties and operations owned by Sydney have been carbon neutral certified since 2011,[47] interim goals of 44% by 2030.[48] Sydney also plans to have the city use 100% renewable energy derived from solar, wind, and waste.[49]
  41. Vancouver, 5% CO2 reduction from 1990 levels by 2020.[50]
  42. Washington D.C., 80% CO2 reduction by 2050.[51]
  43. Wellington, 80% CO2 reduction from 2001 levels by 2050,[52] with interim targets of 10% by 2020; 40% by 2030; and, 65% by 2040.[53]
  44. Yokahama, 24% CO2 reduction by 2030, by 2050 80% from 2005 levels.[54]

      Section II. Strategies Deployed

The following identifies strategies that cities have adopted to achieve the reduction targets. Some of these strategies could be placed in several different categories

          A. Building green buildings

  1. Enacting a policy that new buildings must be designed with passive/low energy, (Oslo).
  2. Developing net zero apartment buildings, (Sydney).
  3. Implementing a Zero Emissions building plan:
    • Eliminating emissions from new buildings by 2020;
    • Increase building insulation requirements; and
    • Reduce energy use,(Vancouver).
  4. Specify future clean energy designs for new buildings, (Boulder).
  5. Encourage net zero buildings with the E+ program, (Boston).
  6. Public School 62 is the first “net-zero energy” school constructed in New York City. The school is designed to reduce energy use by roughly 50% as compared to a standard new NYC public school by using an ultra-tight high- performance building envelope, day-lit corridors, energy recovery, a geothermal well field, and demand-control ventilation. The building offsets the rest of the energy use with wrap-around solar PV panels placed on the entire roof area and the south façade, and solar thermal panels to provide domestic hot water and supplement the heating system, (New York).
  7. Establishing, implementing, and maintaining sustainable building practices for the buildings it owns, leases and funds over the course of their entire (Edmonton).
  8. Upgrade green building standards to include more protective standards for new buildings and certain public and private sector buildings, (Austin).
  9. Require owners of large buildings to incorporate integrated energy modelling early in design process, (Austin).
  10. Mandatory energy modelling and an energy assurance scheme for buildings larger than 5,000 sq m., (Calgary).
  11. Create show case and best practice energy buildings for public buildings, (Melbourne).
  12. Expand requirements for new buildings including implementing a New-Zero goal by 2030, requiring all new buildings to be solar capable, requiring that new city buildings meet LEED Gold standard, requiring new developments to encourage and accommodate low-carbon transportation choices, and require private construction to meet LEED Silver standard (Boston).
  13. Model good behavior to stimulate copycat behavior. A surprisingly successful approach that has seen significant upticks in “passive building” stock is the adoption of the Made In Green standards, a plan which focuses on making public buildings exemplars of ecological considerations, developing rigorous standards for new construction, encourages the incorporation of sustainable neighbor strategies in all new developments, develops green economic networks such as the Employment-Environment Alliance, and focuses on low-carbon mobility, (Brussels).
  14. Official and municipal buildings have all been made climate neutral and schools and public buildings will be transformed as well. Post-2015 only climate neutral buildings are being permitted for construction, (Amsterdam).
  15. Obtain LEED GOLD certification for all new construction and major renovation projects, (San Francisco, Airport).

       B. Reducing energy use in buildings

  1. Developing a district heating system using biomass energy resilience capacity building techniques, (Boulder).
  2. Encouraging eco-certification for municipal buildings, (Oslo).
  3. Adopting building efficiency standards and requirements, (Boulder).
  4. Achieving net zero energy at the new Airfield Security building, (San Francisco, Airport).
  5. Creating building energy monitoring requirements, (Philadelphia).
  6. Providing home repair and energy efficiency upgrades to low income residences, (Portland).
  7. Retrofit 40% of buildings to reduce energy consumption by 2020, (Chicago).
  8. Conserve energy through green roofs, 6,000 to be installed by 2020, (Chicago).
  9. Distribute weatherization materials and compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) to residents, (Chicago).
  10. Make municipal operations a model for minimizing environmental impacts from cleaning products to green roofs, (Boston) (Minneapolis).
  11. For existing municipal buildings incorporate LEED commercial interiors guidelines, (Boston).
  12. Encourage net zero buildings with the E+ program, a program that seeks to make existing buildings ultra efficient, (Boston).
  13. Encourage greening buildings with the Mayor’s Carbon Cup Award to recognize businesses that achieve deep GHG reduction goals, (Boston).
  14. Ensure that building decision-makers have access to building energy use information, (New York).
  15. Improve the energy performance of existing large buildings through the expansion of energy reporting, benchmarking, and disclosure practices, (Edmonton).
  16. Require all new occupied city owned, funded, or renovated buildings to exceed the highest sustainability rating standards, (Calgary).
  17. Create a survey of commercial buildings to determine barriers to energy retrofits, (Melbourne).
  18. In municipal buildings, both houses and offices, phase out the use of oil heating, (Oslo).
  19. Adopt passive house standards for all municipal buildings to minimize the amount of energy required for space heating and cooling, (0slo).
  20. Challenge all city buildings to achieve 10% energy reduction, (Wellington).
  21. Encourage builders and developers to site buildings for better solar orientation to maximize passive solar heating, (Calgary).
  22. Promote the use of visible energy meters in homes and workplaces, (Calgary).
  23. Increase quantity of green certified buildings by focusing on both new construction and remodeled stock using the Green Building Program as a Strategies include minimization of energy and water use (for instance, greywater reuse, rainwater harvesting, storm water reclamation, and regulation of local waterway use and pollution) and maximization of construction debris recycling and reuse, (Berkely).
  24. Enhance energy use standards for existing housing stock by encouraging energy efficiency (green building requirements) achieved via subsidized upgrades for insulation, rebates for energy upgrades, income-qualified weatherization services, making publicly available residential blocks energy efficiency data, state funded energy efficiency loans, and official endorsement of the Energy Star rating program, (Berkely).
  25. Increase public building renewables use and overall energy efficiency following a multi-headed approach that includes Energy Star compliance, the use of solar installations designed to off-set power use, upgrading all city lights (including traffic lights) to LEDs, a mandate that all public buildings under construction or renovation meet LEED silver certification or higher, the use of the Precautionary Principle in all city purchasing decisions, water conservation and recycling programs, and upgrade city vehicle fleet from conventionally powered vehicles to those using alternative, renewable energy, (Berkeley).
  26. Expand energy efficiency program by focusing on the residential experience of citizens and targeting low income, rental, and multi-unit housing, (Boston).
  27. Work with third party organizations to incentivize building owners to seize opportunities for energy efficiency projects both during construction and renovation, (Boston).
  28. Work with utilities to encourage replacement of inefficient outdated equipment before traditional end-of life points are reached, assist in bulk purchasing of replacement technologies and green tech. encourage load-shifting to enhance renewable energy usage, and encourage the deployment of thermal and battery storage, (Boston).
  29. Work with utilities to identify commercial tenant spaces that are abnormally energy demanding and reach out to these to encourage efficiency Similarly, target residential rental opportunities to reduce energy demand, (Boston).
  30. Lead by example, fully shifting public buildings to energy efficient practices by 2020 including the use of high efficiency street lighting, insulation of public buildings, and deployment of renewable energy infrastructure, (Boston).
  31. Conduct more pilot programs including construction of net-zero buildings, incentivize sustainable building practices by offering public land and financial considerations for industry interested in experimenting, leverage Boston’s research capabilities to develop and experiment with better building processes, explore green leasing and encourage vertical thinking that considers roof space as environmental space, including use of cool roofs and green roofs, (Boston).
  32. Reform existing codes to ensure rigorous coverage and retrain inspectors to ensure proper enforcement. Expand building codes to increase standards for renovation and building projects, (Boston).
  33. Work to interconnect existing energy data and reporting mechanisms, (Boston).
  34. Add energy efficiency measures to all current and past city building projects, (Boston).
  35. Adapt public housing to achieve passive standards and assist low income citizens in implementing energy saving alterations, (Brussels).
  36. Require that public buildings play an “exemplary role” by requiring them to exceed standards and demonstrate to the public the energy successes. Require that buildings achieve passive goals, the public fleet to be completely green, and environmental training for all employees be made standard, (Brussels).
  37. Launch the Green Condominium Program (aimed at improving energy efficiency in small, single family homes), the Green Landlord Program (aimed at encouraging landlords to upgrade their facilities), the Home Energy Efficiency Empowerment Program (aimed at educating homeowners on energy efficiency and providing technical know-how and funding assistance), and the Home Energy Technology Program (aimed at assisting in the widescale adoption of green tech, primarily through funding and tax breaks, (Vancover).
  38. Reduce local government building energy use by 75% before 2050 by increasing renewable energy, installing solar power and LED lighting, (Nashville).
  39. Convert public buildings to green buildings, (Hiroshima).
  40. Upgrade all city buildings and offices with energy proficient lights and insulation systems (Los Angeles).
  41. Install energy saving devices in all public buildings, (Ahmadabad).
  42. Determine energy resilience capacity, the ability of the energy system to withstand threats, (Boulder).
  43. Implement cost-effective upgrades in existing buildings to improve energy efficiency in the near term, (New York).
  44. Adopt Eco-Industrial park plans, (Addis Ababa).
  45. Retrofit 40% of buildings to reduce energy consumption by 2020, (Chicago).
  46. Distribute weatherization materials and CFLs to residents, (Chicago).
  47. Make municipal operations the model from cleaning products to green roofs, (Boston) (Minneapolis).
  48. For existing municipal buildings incorporate LEED commercial interiors guidelines, (Boston).
  49. Target inefficient buildings with a mandatory energy reporting ordinance, (Boston) (Minneapolis).
  50. Retrofit 40% of buildings to reduce energy consumption by 2020, (Chicago).
  51. Create EcoRoof incentives, (Portland).
  52. Conserve energy through green roofs, 6,000 to be installed by 2020, (Chicago).
  53. Implement Cool Roofs project, (Melbourne).
  54. Conserve energy through green roofs, 6,000 to be installed by 2020 (Chicago)
  55. For existing municipal buildings incorporate the LEED commercial interiors guidelines, (Boston).     

  C. Other energy reduction tactics.

  1.  Create procedures which allow roadway projects to use more locally-produced and recycled content materials thus saving on costs and energy, (Austin).
  2. Install lighter-colored pavement to reduce urban area temperatures, improve road strength, and lower energy bills of surrounding buildings, (Sydney).
  3. Implement a Neighborhood Energy Strategy:
  • Supply centralized heating, hot water, and cooling for several buildings;
  • Eliminate the need for boilers in each building;
  • Use low carbon renewable energy sources reducing fossil fuel use, (Vancouver).
  1. Assess various available energy reduction programs to determine which might be the best fit for Pittsburgh, (Pittsburgh).
  2. Seek out funding towards repurposing study, that is examine infrastructure and building uses to see if they can be used for more than one use, potentially saving money and energy, (Pittsburgh).
  3. Perform local electricity generation analysis, that is examine all the ways in which energy is generated in the city to see if cost savings and efficiency improvements are possible, (Boulder).
  4. Explore consumption-based accounting method to track and measure GHG emissions from products and packaging produced outside of Boulder but consumed locally, (Boulder).
  5. Launch an effort to reduce city wide water consumption, (New York).
  6. Enhancement of water conservation practice in new and existing buildings, (San Francisco, Airport).
  7. Implement Urban landscapes Climate Plan, (Melbourne).
  8. Scale up deep energy retrofits that holistically address heating systems, cooling systems, and building envelopes and transition buildings away from fossil fuels, (New York).
  9. Establish a Green Renovation Program, (Edmonton).
  10. Create a more responsible public procurement system that looks at purchases both for environmental impacts and lifecycle costs, (Berlin).
  11. Invest $14.8 million at rate of $1 million per year in reducing GHGs, (Melbourne)
  12. Build advanced heat and power systems to provide energy needs, (Berlin).
  13. Improve energy use behavior, wide spread adoption of energy efficient light bulbs, attic insulation projects in existing home stock, and require that new buildings meet the A standard on the BER scale, require major refurbishment of existing housing stock (including attic and wall insulation, boiler upgrades to high efficiency, window replacement, and use of renewable heat sources), implement the District Heating Plan (a new institutional construct that is modelled on Swedish successes in centralizing city heating). The Dublin City Development Plan has likewise been rewritten to mandate high energy performance as standard in all new buildings, (Dublin).
  14. Create a district heating system that covers insulation of new and old buildings. By 2040, almost 200,000 buildings will be administered heat by this system which successfully replaces the individual gas furnace, (Hiroshima).
  15. Invest four million Australian Dollars since 2007 in promoting innovation and technologies to reduce energy use, (Perth).
  16. Develop a coherent, city-wide, approach to neighborhood based energy systems which utilize the current, effective, District Energy Network initiative, (Vancouver)                                                                                                                                          Increase Renewable Energy
  1. Using a water distribution system to generate electricity, (Oslo).
  2. Commit two million dollars each year to install renewable energy on properties to generate clean energy locally, (Sydney).
  3. Install solar panels on properties, (Sydney).
  4. Install solar hot water and/or photovoltaic systems, (Sydney).
  5. Research and early adoption of smart grid technologies, (Austin).
  6. Powering city owned buildings through 100% of renewable energy resources, (Austin).
  7. Determine how many buildings have adequate solar energy capacity, (Pittsburgh)
  8. Develop an implementation plan to install solar energy on buildings, (Pittsburgh).
  9. Assess existing research on the benefits of passive solar design, especially in climates similar to Pittsburgh’s, (Pittsburgh).
  10. Determine which aspects of passive solar design are most appropriately suited to Pittsburgh, and whether the potential benefits are significant enough to justify a code change, (Pittsburgh).
  11. Implement a roof top solar program, (Boulder).
  12. Create a nanogrid and microgrid, (Boulder).
  13. Investigate producing and use of biofuels, (New York).
  14. Examine how city operations could increase solar use, diesel retrofit, and energy efficiency, (Melbourne).
  15. Build Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, (Addis Ababa).
  16. Develop Melbourne Renewable Energy Project, (Melbourne).
  17. Create Solar Atlas of potential solar applications for city by determining solar capability of various locations, (Berlin).
  18. Create a program Solar Capital Berlin, (Berlin).
  19. Create a program Solar Now!, (Portland).
  20. Create a Renewable Energy Master Plan, (Sydney).
  21. Develop a Renewable Energy Infrastructure Master Plan, (Rotterdam).
  22. Expand distributed solar energy and install 1,000 MW of solar capacity by 2030, (New York).
  23. Increase percentage of green power purchases, (Edmonton).
  24. Streamline the approval and permitting process for building-mounted solar panel systems, while providing clarity on building safety requirements, allowable impacts and allowable exemptions, (Edmonton).
  25. Convert the existing stream heat network to run off of renewable energy sources, (Dublin).
  26. Develop and implement a renewable energy strategy to reach the 100% renewables goal by 2050. Further fund the Climate Action Revenue Incentive Program which offsets carbon tax payment by industries who have pledged to be and are on course to become carbon (Vancouver).
  27. Create a smart grid network to utilize and control energy use that has been created which will help save and trade solar energy produced by the panels installed in their area, (Hiroshima).
  28. Install solar heating panels for all public swimming pools and restrooms, (Los Angeles).
  29. Install solar energy panels throughout the city with a target to increase the number of households with rooftop solar panels from 5,000 to 80,000 by 2020, (Amsterdam).
  30. Because of lack of adequate roofs for households, work with big industrial and commercial buildings to lease their roof for the solar panels to generate energy for residents, (Amsterdam).
  31. Expand wind power generation capacity from 67 MW to 85 MW, (Amsterdam
  32. Transform ports to become Green Ports by replacing old wind turbines with new and increased number of wind mills, (Amsterdam).
  33. Promote the use of solar panel by subsidizing the tax, controlling the use of solar energy by meters, and installing public solar panels for public use, (Los Angles).
  34. Provide economical solar power as an alternative to conventional power to the low-income groups, (Los Angeles).
  35. Install solar panels on almost every public building and for all public facilities, (Hiroshima).
  36. Enter into contracts with wind producers to meet city energy needs, (Austin).
  37. Require all producers of energy to meet renewable energy standard, (Austin).

            E. Increase Energy Efficiency

  1. Implement a rooftop Trigeneration System to heat and cool municipal buildings, (Sydney).
  2. Develop decentralized energy networks, (Sydney).
  3. Make energy efficiency and demand side management priorities of the Municipal utility, (Boulder).
  4. Expand energy services to the city, (Boulder).
  5. Replace natural gas and petroleum combustion throughout the city, (Boulder).
  6. Maximize water supply from existing facilities such as the groundwater system and the New Croton Aqueduct, (New York).
  7. Promote energy benchmarking, (Philadelphia).
  8. Distribute weatherization materials and CFLs to residents, (Chicago).
  9. Make municipal operations the model for sustainability from cleaning products to green roofs, (Boston), (Minneapolis).
  10. Create a tree canopy plan with a goal of a 35% increase in canopy cover, (Boston).
  11. Encourage net zero buildings with the E+ program which challenges builders, architects, and developers to build green buildings, (Boston).
  12. Encourage greening with the Mayor’s Carbon Cup award to recognize businesses achieving deep GHG reduction goals, (Boston).
  13. Implement the Efficiency Master Plan, (Sydney).
  14. Implement means by which energy use can be assessed, analyzed, and tracked by use of close public-private partnership,(Durban)/
  15. Deploy small scale municipality studies and incorporate successes into broader uses including the creation of Energy Efficiency Clubs, large scale use of LEDs in street lights, municipal building retrofit to incorporate solar panels and water heating, and educational outreach and training programs, (Durban).
  16. Create a Biogas Cogeneration Facility, (Philadelphia).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     F.  Energy Ordinances


  1. Charge a carbon tax, (Oslo).
  2. Create Conservation Audit and Disclosure Ordinance which requires energy audits for all homes in Austin electric service area, (Austin).
  3. Update energy codes to require that all homes be rated for energy use, (Austin).
  4. Determine whether a mandate, incentive, or combination of both is the most effective way to promote passive solar design, (Pittsburgh).
  5. Implement the universal zero waste ordinance, (Boulder),
  6. Strengthen the disposable bag fee ordinance to further reduce bag use, (Boulder).
  7. Adopt the Green Taxi Ordinance, specifying a reduction of average fleet GHG emissions by 20% below 1990 levels within four years (the standard amount of time it takes taxi companies to turn over fleet inventory), (San Francisco).
  8. Require energy use disclosure at point of sale for all buildings more than 10 years old, (Austin).
  9. Adopt Green Building Rezoning Policies which target GHG emissions specifically and mandate targets for all new buildings. Similarly, improve the energy efficiency standards for construction in the Vancouver Building code. Wider use of the Passive House development will become standard in law and policy. Broader implementation of the Green Building Policies and a specific inclusion of the emissions per square foot metric will be included. Update the British Columbia Building Code to include improvements for those in social housing and the general greening of public buildings,(Vancouver)
  10. Target inefficient buildings with mandatory energy reporting ordinance, (Boston) (Minneapolis).

              G. Transportation strategies


  1. Reconfigure traffic lights to synchronize with traffic through codes, (Austin).
  2. Provide extended transit service to suburbs, (Austin).
  3. Provide smart cars around the city for use by the public for a small fee, Car2go, (Austin).
  4. Create multi-use trails for non-motorized vehicles traveling across Austin, (Austin).
  5. Install enhanced bicycle signal detection technologies, (Austin).
  6. Install Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons, devices designed to signal to drivers that pedestrians are crossing streets thereby making walking safer, (Austin).
  7. Prioritize public transport users over other transportation options, (Oslo).
  8. Work in conjunction with local agencies to increase awareness of anti-idling requirements which reduce energy waste, (Austin).
  9. Require cars to be electric or fall below a really low emission standard, (Oslo).
  10. Develop a subscription system for bicycles for public use, (Oslo).
  11. Implement a high capacity transit corridor, (Seattle).
  12. Use electronic vehicles for the municipal fleet, (Seattle).
  13. Create motor vehicle excise tax which incentivizes low GHG emissions transportation, (Seattle).
  14. Incentivize increasing use of electric vehicles through free public parking, free access to toll roads, and use of lanes originally reserved for public transport, (Oslo).
  15. Create a fuel cell bus pilot program, (Oslo).
  16. Provide carbon neutral electricity for transport within the city, (Seattle).
  17. Replace entire municipal car fleet with electric cars, (Oslo).
  18. Ban cars from city center by 2019, (Oslo).
  19. Adjust speed limits accordingly to promote safety for all users of the roadway while saving on gas, (Austin).
  20. Expand transit, walking, and bicycling infrastructure and services, (Seattle).
  21. Add more volume-count monitoring stations to assist in making informed traffic system improvements, (Austin).
  22. Provide 200 charging stations in return for a $50/year subscription, (Austin).
  23. Expand the transportation system by offering a variety of options including extended hours for the MetroRail, (Austin).
  24. Add additional miles of new, safer, and enhanced bicycle lanes and trails, (Austin).
  25. Revise the purpose of a street to be considered as “a public space designed to move people, not just cars,” (Austin).
  26. Encourage proposals for high capacity transit, (Austin).
  27. Expand the electric trolley bus program, (Seattle).
  28. Use digital technology to maximize transportation efficiency, (Boulder).
  29. Create incentives to explore new mobility options, (Boulder).
  30. Support the adoption of electric vehicles and other non-fossil fuel mobility options for vehicles, (Boulder).
  31. Catalyze the development of non-fossil fuel transit systems, (Boulder).
  32. Develop parking management systems that stimulate adoption of high efficiency mobility options, (Boulder).
  33. Replace vehicle fleets with low emission vehicles, (San Francisco, Airport).
  34. Create an employee commute program, (San Francisco, Airport).
  35. Create a bus rapid transport system, (Addis Ababa).
  36. Develop a city-wide bicycle plan 2016-2020, (Melbourne).
  37. Implement 2017 City of Electric Vehicle Strategy, (Portland).
  38. Develop a plan for greater use of electric vehicles, Electric Vehicles: The Portland Way, (Portland).
  39. Increase light rail transit, (Addis Ababa).
  40. Examine the introduction of hybrid diesel buses, (Philadelphia).
  41. Implement Pedestrian and Bicycle Plan, (Philadelphia).
  42. Develop a plan for expanding trails for walking and bicycles, Philadelphia Trail Master Plan, (Philadelphia).
  43. Create a program that helps citizens reduce single-occupancy driving commutes through use of public transportation, bicycle, and walking, SmartTrips, (Portland).
  44. Create a traffic signal optimization program, (Portland).
  45. Create a program that increases the number of electric vehicles, Transportation Electrification Plan, (Portland).
  46. Incentivize public transit with pre-tax transit passes and cash payments by employers, (Chicago).
  47. Expand public transportation routes to boost ridership by 30%, (Chicago).
  48. Promote transit-oriented development, (Chicago).
  49. Add 150 hybrid buses to the current pilot fleet, (Chicago).
  50. Develop a strategy to increase car sharing and carpooling, (Chicago).
  51. Create a 500-mile bikeway network,(Chicago).
  52. Install 5,000 new bike racks, (Chicago).
  53. Power the municipal fleet with alternative fuels through an alternative fuel vehicle procurement policy, (Boston).
  54. Use biodiesel and ultra-low sulfur fuel in all diesel fleets, (Boston).
  55. Increase bike ridership through expanded bike lanes, sponsoring events, and Ride-Along Fridays program, (Boston).
  56. Design standards for multimodal streets that make all modes of transportation, vehicles, walking, bicycles compatible and safe, (Boston).
  57. Offer multiple public transportation options at one site, (Boston).
  58. Implement the Hubway Bikeshare program which provides 600 bicycles at 60 stations, (Boston).
  59. Map the comprehensive network of bicycle routes, (Boston).
  60. Enforce prohibition on idling trucks, (Boston).
  61. Parking freeze is maintained to encourage alternative transportation, (Boston) (Copenhagen).
  62. City of cyclists, add miles of bike paths, (Copenhagen) (Boston).
  63. Beautify the current bicycle routes through tree planting, (Copenhagen).
  64. Encourage bicycling through priority parking options at transport stations, (Copenhagen).
  65. Encourage bus ridership by investing in improved interiors, (Copenhagen).
  66. Convert municipal fleets to hydrogen and electric power,(Copenhagen).
  67. Encourage private citizens to convert to electric and hydrogen powered vehicles by providing refueling stations and free parking, (Copenhagen).
  68. Mandate bus companies reduce emissions by 25%, (Copenhagen).
  69. Create intelligent traffic systems, (Copenhagen).
  70. Develop comprehensive mobility planning, (Copenhagen).
  71. Identify and address gaps in the existing transit network and service, (Minneapolis).
  72. Develop car share program including priority parking, (Minneapolis).
  73. Implement the pedestrian and bicycle master plan, (Minneapolis).
  74. Reduce minimum parking requirements for buildings that are close to public transit, (Minneapolis).
  75. Encourage telecommuting and video conferencing, (Stockholm).
  76. Increase bicycle infrastructure, including bike sharing programs, (Stockholm).
  77. Install bicycle parking at all city workplaces, (Stockholm).
  78. Provide access cards for public transportation for business trips within the city, (Stockholm).
  79. Disseminate maps of bike paths and the network available to bicycle commuters, (Stockholm).
  80. Physically separate bicyclists and vehicle traffic, (Stockholm) (Minneapolis).
  81. Make bicycling safer at intersections with separate traffic signals and priority stop lines, (Stockholm).
  82. Enlarge bus lanes to promote reliability, (Stockholm).
  83. Make bus fleet 100% renewable by 2020, (Stockholm).
  84. Require that municipal fleet is fossil fuel free by 2030, (Stockholm).
  85. Create biofuel tax incentives to encourage the private sector to convert fossil fuel driven vehicles to biofuel, (Stockholm).
  86. Create low stress streets, i.e., streets dedicated to walking and biking, (Boston).
  87. Modernize, expand, and reduce crowding on the city’s transit system, (New York).
  88. Make walking and biking safer, more convenient options for all, (New York).
  89. Ensure that the City’s policies prioritize walking, biking, and public transit, (New York).
  90. Leverage technology and data to expand travel options and optimize the transportation network, (New York).
  91. Better manage and price parking to encourage efficient travel choices, (New York).
  92. Commit to add 2,000 electric vehicles (EVs) to its sedan fleet by 2025, (New York).
  93. Create an electric vehicle station charging program to advance the uptake of electric vehicles in the city, (Edmonton).
  94. Create 160 electric recharging stations at 70 locations, (Austin.)
  95. Encourage employers to offer transit passes to employees, (Calgary).
  96. Encourage ride and vehicle sharing in communities, (Calgary).
  97. Encourage workplaces to provide secure bike storage for employees, (Austin).
  98. Eliminate employee parking subsidies, (Austin).
  99. Work with large employers and academic institutions to implement and improve trip reduction programs and use of low or zero carbon transport alternatives, (Austin).
  100. Encourage teleworking to reduce commuter journeys, (Calgary).
  101. Increase walking and cycling journeys into downtown by 40%, (Calgary).
  102. Improve inclusion of pedestrians in transport planning decisions, (Melbourne).
  103. Create an attractive walking environment and connected walking networks, (Melbourne).
  104. Address pedestrian crowding issues at key transport modes, (Melbourne).
  105. Reduce pedestrian delays at controlled road crossings, (Melbourne).
  106. Support efforts to use zero carbon vehicles, (Melbourne).
  107. Create car ban for portions of center city, (Oslo).
  108. Transfer portions of car park space to bike space, (Oslo).
  109. Improve snow removal from cycle lanes in winter to encourage more cycling in the cold season, (Oslo).
  110. Develop and improve cycling infrastructure, currently painted road markings and intersection zones for bikes, and signage, (Wellington).
  111. Provide up to 100 carparks in the central city and suburbs for car share vehicles and EVs, with charging infrastructure provided by partners, (Wellington).
  112. Increase commuter cycling and walking via a four-pronged approach which includes a Pedestrian Plan, an increase in bike parking spaces, a Bike Plan that includes a focus on providing comprehensive bicycle education, (Berkeley).
  113. Expand car and ride sharing programs, specifically by improving access to sharing locations and vehicles, (Berkeley).
  114. Enhance public transit options, in cooperation with BART, AC Transit, and community organizations to reduce fares while improving frequency, reliability, range, comfort, and punctuality, (Berkeley).
  115. Increase low-carbon vehicle adoption, by removing regulations inhibiting mass adoption of alternate fuel vehicles and increasing bureaucratic support for green development (for instance, formalizing and codifying the requirements for deployment of electric charging stations in private, commercial, and public spaces), (Berkeley).
  116. Green the city fleet by replacing public vehicles with alternative fuel vehicles and encouraging government employee use of public transport options (via bus passes and tax benefits), (Berkeley).
  117. Implement parking management that promotes the use of public & alternative transport, primarily through limiting parking spaces, and dedicated use increases, (Berkeley).
  118. Implement parking management that promotes the use of public & alternative transport, primarily through limiting parking spaces, and use increases of green vehicles, (Berkeley).
  119. Revolutionize transportation options through a total reconsideration of the road network and transport options including a significant push towards increasing fuel economy, extolling the value of hybrids and electric vehicles, and promoting efficient freight trucks, and decreasing VMTs (vehicle miles traveled) by 5.5% below 2010 levels before 2020, (Boston).
  120. Focus on transforming Brussels from a car-based to an alternate-based transport regime, by adopting the IRIS 2 policies (a package of policies which aims to promote walking, biking, and use of public transport by diverting funds, encouraging investment, expanding reach, range, & reliability, and reducing costs and providing suitable infrastructural support while simultaneously disincentivizing single occupant trips), (Brussels).
  121. Create workplace and school travel plans to encourage commuters to use public transport on their daily travels, (Dublin).
  122. Implement eco-driving training for all professional drivers, (Dublin).
  123. Expand current transit options to include new routes, greater bus service coverage, and station upgrades, (Vancover).
  124. Use parking infrastructure to disincentivize private car use and support sustainable transport choices, (Vancover).
  125. Reduce membership fees for low income earners in bike share program, (Vancover).
  126. Introduce “smart traffic signals boost cycling” program, which involves the, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) technology that helps government control traffic lights so bicycles and buses get around easier while reducing traffic lights’ energy use by 25%, (Copenhagen).
  127. Streamline transport to make it more carbon efficient with 700 km of bicycles trails and expanding public transport so everybody is within 10 minutes walking distance to a train station, (Singapore).
  128. Promote a cycle sharing system that presently has more than two hundred thousand active users, (Rio de Janeiro).
  129. Promote the concept of “peer economy” which runs on the principle of “own less and use more.” The present-day media and social platforms help people participate in this shared mobility plan where people share their vehicles when not in use or share their travel with others implementing the concept of car pool as well. (Rio de Janeiro).
  130. Convert public transport to use bio fuels and promote personal vehicles to make the switch as well, (Rio de Janeiro).
  131. Establish restricted environment zones, where old and inefficient vehicles are banned and assure that EVs entering the city are cheaper than others due to reduced parking rates, (Amsterdam).
  132. Set a goal of 4000 EV charging stations, (Amsterdam).
  133. Provide that by 2040 only electric boats will be allowed to travel on waterways, (Amsterdam).
  134. Use carbon free energy for vehicles and for airport infrastructure, (Los Angeles).
  135. Support electrification of rails to ensure zero emissions, (Los Angeles).
  136. Create electric charging stations as a part of every green building and throughout the city. Also, make the technology affordable for people to install in their homes, (Los Angeles).
  137. Create the Bus Rapid System (‘BRS’) which creates separate lanes for buses, taxis, other public transport assuring quicker transport during high congestion times. It betters the movement of public transport and encourages people to avail them reducing the number of personal vehicles and in turn lowering the carbon emission, (Ahmedabad).
  138. Create pricing in car parks that discourages the use of personal vehicles, (Perth).
  139. Create a car parks with solar charging panels for EVs (Perth).
  140. Build separate roads for ecological automobiles, (Hiroshima).
  141. Assist transit-oriented companies such as taxies in transitioning to carbon neutral vehicle and fuel options, (Seattle).
  142. Raise fuel economy requirements for all vehicles beyond federal requirements, (Boston).
  143. Convert all public transport and other city transport to using electricity or bio gas as fuel, (Los Angeles).

                                                                                                                                                     H.Transform Lighting


  1. Transform street lighting throughout the city to LEDs, (Philadelphia).
  2. Replace traffic lights with LEDs, (Chicago) (Copenhagen).
  3. Develop a public lighting strategy for city, (Melbourne).
  4. Traffic signal conversion to LEDs. (Portland).
  5. Retrofit street lights with LEDs in 71,000 lights by 2018 and 80,000 by 2019, (Calgary)
  6. Implement a ten-year lighting upgrade to LED in every public building from 2015, (Perth).
  7. Replace traffic lights with LEDs, (Chicago) (Copenhagen).
  8. Change streetlights to LEDs, (Minneapolis).
  9. Create city LED Lighting Project, (Sydney).
  10. Install LED lights throughout city, (Austin).
  11. Intelligent Street Lighting, (Oslo).
  12. Replace standard street lights with LED fixtures by installing 6448 LED light fixtures, (Sydney).
  13. In a joint venture with the electricity supply company in greater Oslo (Hafslund), install 10,000 intelligent high-pressure sodium streetlights, thereby reducing energy consumption by 70%. Each lamp can be dimmed individually when traffic and weather conditions allow. (Oslo),
  14. Replace all its street lights with LEDs to save energy. C(Ahmadabad)
  15. Convert traffic signals into solar operated traffic signals. (Los Angeles)
  16. Convert traffic signals into solar operated traffic signals. (Los Angeles).
  17. Replace traffic lights with LEDs, (Chicago) (Copenhagen).
  18. Create energy efficient lighting throughout the city, (Copenhagen).

            I. Manage Waste Disposal

  1. Produce biogas and bio-fertilizer from organic household waste at city’ anarobic treatment plant and use it for vehicle and agricultural purposes, (Oslo­).
  2. Zero waste plan, (San Francisco, Airport).
  3. Initially limit compositing to yard waste, but eventually explore the possibility of composting food waste, (Pittsburgh).
  4. Examine the use of BigBelly Trash Compactors to see if energy can be saved. (Philadelphia).
  5. Create a closed loop material management system to control material inputs and maximize recycling to reduce waste to landfills, (Berlin).
  6. Use waste water sludge to create biogas to replace diesel in buses, (Oslo).
  7. Increase renewable energy from landfills by improving methane collection efficiency, (Phoenix).
  8. Develop the existing landfill capture system to capitalize on the unused 29% of emissions and use the generated gas to fuel more projects (heating local buildings and greenhouses, and generating power), (Dublin).
  9. Implement the REPPIE Waste to Energy program which will process1400 tons of waste while producing 185,000,000 kwh of electricity to the Ethiopian grid every day, (Addis Ababa).
  10. Install a new main trash incinerator capturing carbon dioxide, (Oslo).
  11. Implementing measures to capture and destroy landfill gas at four landfills, (Austin).
  12. Increase home and business composting, (Austin).
  13. Develop more effective recycling practices at businesses and in public spaces, (Austin).
  14. Implement mechanisms to achieve a 90% diversion of solid waste materials, (Austin).
  15. Review and implement results of existing feasibility study of recycling and waste management, (Pittsburgh).
  16. Improve methane collection efficiency in landfills, (Phoenix).
  17. Create a digester gas to energy process at landfills, (Phoenix).
  18. Identify opportunities for digester gas capture and use, (New York).
  19. Create an improved municipal waste management plan, (Berlin).
  20. Create a Waste and Resource Recovery Plan, (Melbourne).
  21. Create a waste disposal master plan to generate gas for combustion from land fills, (Sydney).
  22. Apply anaerobic digestion technology to decompose the organic fraction of municipal solid waste to produce biogas (a mixture of methane, carbon monoxide, and other gases). (Edmonton}
  23. Explore the ability of city to meet energy needs with landfill gas, (Austin).
  24. Provide curbside pickup of organic material to reduce landfill gas, (Austin).
  25. Require landfill operators to refine landfill gas capture and combustion to destroy methane at landfills, (Austin).
  26. Implement zero waste strategies as defined by a waste reduction plan, including an emphasis on public education and outreach, (Vancouver).
  27. Install a waste to energy plant which produces methane for combustion, (Washington).
  28. Create a “waste-to-energy project (that) supplies national grid” by capturing landfill biogas and turning it in to electricity while donating “twenty-four per cent of the proceeds from the sale of carbon emission credits and four per cent of electricity sales […] to social investment in surrounding communities,” (Bogota).
  29. Progress towards zero waste by recycling all its waste materials in recycling plants which separate the organic waste from the rest and recycle them. Also develop an anaerobic digester and food waste pre-processing facility along with developing blue, green and black bin infrastructure for waste management, (Los Angeles).
  30. Convert ninety-nine % of 1.4 million tons of urban and business discard the city collects each year annually into ecological energy and fresh resources, (Amsterdam).
  31. Create power plants which burn waste to produce energy, (Hiroshima).
  32. Create a waste to energy plant to power the heating in 84,000 homes, (Oslo).

                J. Land Use Planning

  1. Create joint use parking facilities which facilitates compact urban design that reduce energy waste, (Austin).
  2. Generate and preserve affordable green housing, (Seattle).
  3. Implement a well-balanced strong inclusionary zoning policy which facilitates compact communities while reducing energy waste, (Seattle).
  4. Replace minimum parking requirements with maximum parking requirements to encourage public transit use, (Seattle).
  5. Use revenue from parking for sustainable neighborhood needs, (Seattle).
  6. Establish transit oriented development to include businesses, housing, and activity centers within walkable distance of each other, (Austin).
  7. Consider infill development that provides long-term affordability for residents and businesses, (Austin).
  8. Ensure that transit-oriented communities are within a 1/4 mile of transit options, (Austin).
  9. Revise zoning to prioritize mixed-use development, (Austin).
  10. Identify potential locations for composting operations, including the Forestry Division headquarters, vacant lots, and City and Housing Authority unused property, (Pittsburgh).
  11. Conduct infrastructure assessment to determine transition needs to reduce energy, (Boulder).
  12. Integrate transportation mobility enhancements to reduce energy use into land use planning, (Boulder).
  13. Continue maintenance and upgrade programs for infrastructure needed for a sustainable city, (New York).
  14. Review current and proposed construction and equipment replacement contracts to identify opportunities for energy efficiency improvements and switching to cleaner burning fuels, (New York).
  15. Adopt TreePhilly plan which requires each city neighborhood to have 30% tree canopy cover, (Philadelphia).
  16. Create a Tree Retention and Removal Policy, (Melbourne).
  17. Develop the city in accordance with the idea of 20 Minute Neighborhoods, or having anything you need to be within a 20-minute walk, (Portland).
  18. Create an urban forest strategy, (Melbourne), (Austin).
  19. Develop green zones within clusters of neighborhoods, (Minneapolis).
  20. Implement strategy to achieve the full Transit Orientated Development (TOD) potential of existing and future public transportation stations, (Edmonton).
  21. Transform 535 acres in the heart of Edmonton into one of the world’s largest sustainable communities, (Edmonton).
  22. Streamline zoning and permitting processes to encourage private building developers to connect to the district heating system, (Oslo).
  23. Create a land use plan that reflects climate policy in four areas: bio-climate in urban areas; open spaces and green areas; quality of water and torrential rain; climate protection, (Berlin).
  24. Increase canopy cover to 40% of city, (Melbourne).
  25. Create “eco districts” that seek to attract parties that are willing to pursue sustainable development. (Melbourne).
  26. Establish design standards that better provide comfortable connections between buildings and transit stops, (Calgary).
  27. Encourage higher density developments close to transit stops, (Calgary).
  28. Increase city green- and open-spaces via tree planting program (the urban forest approach), increased farmer’s market support buy local and encourage use of public parks and community gardens, (Berkeley).
  29. Adopt compact urban development design via regulation limiting development of new city construction to transport corridors and giving preference to development along, and within, transport nodes and corridors (e.g. see East Bay Green Corridor),(Berkeley).
  30. Prioritize the transformation of vacant lots and dilapidated areas into urban farms or community garden projects, (Boston).
  31. Expand Healthy Corner Store Initiative and emphasize the benefits of buying local. Complete study on city food use, waste, and coverage, (Boston).
  32. Create tree canopy, implement the Clarify the Tree Canopy Plan and reach target of 35% coverage by 2030, (Boston).
  33. Implement the 2015-2021 Open Space Plan which requires proper maintenance and enhancement of Boston’s existing green spaces, (Boston).
  34. Give preference for high density, integrated, residential properties which are highly connected to non-carbon intense transport networks and benefit from shared resource use, (Brussels).
  35. Greenify the city, creating a string of green spaces that include urban agriculture, increased tree coverage, improved and updated paving and cycle paths, the creation of green avenues in hitherto unused spaces (like railway tracks, along waterways, or on public pavements), (Brussels).
  36. Create large zones of special regulatory regions which are focused on intensive rehabilitation and restoration projects which must, in the future, comply with exacting standards for development, (Brussels).
  37. Focus on developing the urban core, increasing densification, reducing sprawl, increasing public transport by focusing on the Urban Development Line which marks the extent to which urban development is permitted in long term and identify areas in which only agricultural uses may occur, (Durban).
  38. Develop a long-term visionary planning project that is meant to energize public participation in planning and implantation. The Imagine Durban plan has been incorporated into a long-term plan and developed part from citizen suggestions that have been adapted for general use including a green roof project, a solid waste management program, polyethylene terephthalate plastic products project, and a city hall food garden project, (Durban).
  39. Focus on urban development only where services are already available and may be provided in a green friendly manner, (Durban).
  40. Convert underused rail space, via the Viva Vancouver Program, to greenspaces which encourage walking, (Vancouver).
  41. Vastly increase the tree coverage through re-greening of neighborhoods an develop plan for cataloguing and tracking urban trees, (Vancouver).
  42. Implement the urban farming policy, increasing the urban land used for farming, the number of framers and community markets, (Vancouver).
  43. Implement the Vancouver Food Strategy which emphasizes grow-local, eat-local and encourages that parks be repurposed to include food gardens, free fruit trees provided for the community, (Vancouver).
  44. Consider land use as an ultimate environmental question and focus on future development that prioritizes green transport, (Vancouver).
  45. Stop net tree-loss by 2020 and plant more than 500,000 trees before 2050 to sequestrate more carbon, (Nashville).
  46. Create green zones for plantation and mark areas along the shore to install renewable energy, (Amsterdam).
  47. Plant trees on steep hills not only to improve air quality and carbon sequestration but also to prevent landslides and create jobs, The city has planted 150 hectares of land by 2016 which has created employment, (Rio de Janeiro).
  48. Conserve energy through green roofs, 6,000 to be installed by 2020, (Chicago).
  49. Create a tree canopy plan with a goal of a 35% increase in canopy cover, (Boston).
  50. Plan for transit oriented development and exploitation of existing infrastructure. This would include a targeted residency rate of 45%, significantly decreasing commuting transport pollution by reducing sprawl, (Boston).
  51. Sequester carbon by planting over a million new trees, (Chicago) (Minneapolis).

                                                                                                                                                    K. Miscellaneous ways of reducing GHG emissions

  1. Institute a campaign to assist house-owners in replacing oil heating, (Oslo).
  2. Conduct a feasibility study for a more detailed GHG inventory, (New York).
  3. Complete a comprehensive baseline emissions inventory and develop a process for yearly updates, (New York).
  4. Develop department-wide GHG management plans with facility specific plans that are integrated with capital improvement programs, (New York).
  5. Support and encourage residential and commercial projects to reduce GHG emissions, (Phoenix).
  6. Improve electricity demand response and load management, (Philadelphia).
  7. Create a Last MiloMetre Freight Plan which increases freight delivery efficiency and reduces traffic congestion, (Melbourne).
  8. Create a Zero Net Emissions Strategy for the city, (Melbourne),
  9. Create a GHG reduction performance measurement system, (Boston).
  10. Conduct an emissions audit outreach program, (Boston).
  11. Plan to reduce fossil fuel use by replacing them with bio-fuels, (Rotterdam).
  12. Develop a city based standard for clean energy, (New York).
  13. Require energy producers in city to meet renewable energy target, (Oslo).
  14. Explore ways of assuring that city’s energy demands are not provided by brown coal or other high GHG emitting sources of energy, (Melbourne)
  15. Use smart grid technology to more efficiently manage electricity grid, (Austin).
  16. Call for basic behavioral changes (“good housekeeping” adaptations including lights off after work hours and powering down machinery when not in use) and the adaptation of low energy light bulbs, require upgrades to commercial and industrial building heating, ventilation, and climate control systems, comprehensive insulation of existing stock, and new commercial buildings reaching a BER A rating, (Dublin).
  17. Retire all the coal plants for energy production by 2035, (Los Angeles).
  18. Create district heating systems that use waste treatment plants to generate heat and power as forms of renewable energy, (Amsterdam).
  19. Create district heating systems that use waste treatment plants to generate heat and power as forms of renewable energy, (Amsterdam).

        L. Educating civil society about climate issues

  1. Arranging climate conferences for both public and private consumers, (Oslo).
  2. KRequiring environmental training for its employees, (Oslo).
  3. Training 5,000 young ambassadors for waste separation each year, (Oslo).
  4. Involving the community through workshops and events teaching skills and processes to reduce the carbon footprint, (Sydney).
  5. Encouraging public understanding of individual carbon footprint and empowering individuals to reduce this footprint by providing the public with a calculator to determine each individual’s carbon footprint, (Austin).
  6. Engaging college students in the process of achieving a climate friendly society, (Austin).
  7. Support individually tailored assessments of GHG footprint for complex organizations and entities, (Austin).
  8. Mayor and City leadership publicly announce climate goals, (Pittsburgh).
  9. Acquire funding for advertising climate program, (Pittsburgh).
  10. Launch web tools on climate change for residents, (Pittsburgh).
  11. Voluntary education, services and incentives for building owners, (Boulder).
  12. Deliver expanded multifamily housing assistance program to educate and increase recycling and composting, (Boulder).
  13. Create a set of sustainability goals for the city and an internet site, GreenWorks Dashboard, that identifies the goals and progress made in achieving the goals, (Philadelphia).
  14. Become a leader in climate education of children and youth through a virtual climate science center, (Copenhagen).
  15. Develop and test a model for realizations of energy savings to improve accountability and realistic feedback on progress, (Copenhagen).
  16. Create networks for knowledge sharing and provide energy counseling through the city, (Stockholm).
  17. Promote knowledge accumulation about climate issues and sharing throughout the city, (Copenhagen).
  18. Establish internet infrastructure on climate change issues for public sharing, (Copenhagen).
  19. Provide education to citizens through such organizations such as the Chicago Center for Green Technology on climate technology issues, (Chicago).
  20. Create information campaigns to support public transportation, (Stockholm).
  21. Find solutions for climate change by examining landlord-tenant disincentives, (Boston).
  22. Create a neighborhood climate action network, (Boston).
  23. Pilot neighborhood-level sustainability planning, (Boston).
  24. Create databases to connect citizens with information on relevant city processes on climate change issues and local sustainability matters, (Boston).
  25. Expand messaging and communications on climate issues and provide the information in multiple languages, (Boston).
  26. Publish and update a plan to achieve sustainability in the city such as the GreenWorks on the Ground, (Philadelphia).
  27. Educate citizens on how to obtain a solar viability assessment, The NYC Solar Partnership developed a pilot Solarize campaign in Brooklyn Community Board 6 (Solarize CB6) in 2015. The Partnership and community representatives selected two solar installers through a competitive process. Solarize CB6 held public educational workshops and participated in community events, ultimately reaching more than 660 residents and businesses. More than 350 people signed up for solar siting assessments, representing over 400 buildings, (New York).
  28. Establish a solar curriculum that is being incorporated into classroom learning in public schools to help bring the benefits of solar energy to life. The City’s Department of Education partnered with Solar One, a non-profit organization, to provide curriculum, classroom supplies, and professional development training to teachers whose schools received solar PV installations, (New York).
  29. Establish a long-term awareness and education campaign to inform citizens about the benefits of green buildings, (Edmonton).
  30. Establish programs to encourage uptake of solar PV technology, (Edmonton).
  31. Establish energy education program for City operations stakeholders who have responsibilities that affect or influence the energy consumption in City infrastructure and assets, (Edmonton).
  32. Establish an overarching marketing and communication strategy to engage/mobilize green energy use, (Edmonton).
  33. Establish an information and analytical tool to help citizens understand their personal energy use and the actions they can take to conserve energy and use it more efficiently, (Edmonton).
  34. Establish an evidence- based, action-oriented plan that will encourage a market-shift toward the purchase of battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in Edmonton, (Edmonton).
  35. Create an education and awareness program that promotes energy efficient practices and productions, (Calgary).
  36. Create the Sustainable Austin blog: published by the City’s Department of Sustainability to keep citizens engaged with the net zero by 2050 goal, (Austin).
  37. Promote plastic free July 2017, including offering tours of the city’s landfill so that citizens can see the damage being done by plastic bags to the city’s environment, offering advice on the website, and raising awareness though the weekly newsletter for citizens, (Wellington).
  38. Offer free two-hour assessments to landlords, tenants, and homeowners about how to save energy in light of individual needs and budget, (Wellington).
  39. Encourage school and university students, and others, to visit the landfill – up to two tours each day during which advice is give on ways to minimize waste, (Wellington) .
  40. Create a Green Business Leaders program to encourage businesses to “protect the environment, save money, and make Austin a more livable city.” It currently has 214 members from 10 different categories of business, representing 39,000 employees and over 15m square feet of office space, (Austin).
  41. Organize a yearly forum to educate developers, tenants, and commercial interests of green technology developments, (Melbourne).
  42. Educate civil society about damages from low density housing, (Calgary).
  43. Enhance outreach and incentives to business (green business certification), an ongoing effort managed by the specially created Office of Economic Development and Green Businesses, (Berkeley).
  44. Invigorate community action, targeting cooperation between residents, businesses, community groups, and educational facilities to enhance, augment, compliment, and plan Berkeley’s environmental future, (Berkeley)
  45. Create a Neighborhood Climate Action Network: Boston aims to harness the power of residents and neighborhoods by creating community organizations and outreach mechanisms designed to educate citizens about, and encourage action on, climate change and mitigation opportunities, all-scale neighborhood projects designed to test climate change reduction strategies and allow direct input from communities who will be empowered to set goals, design and implement projects, and assess the impact on their neighborhoods, and increase local investment in environmental job training and spending, (Boston).
  46. Create an Environmental One-Stop Shop: Boston will centralize resources, guides, and city departments into a single, accessible bureaucracy which is readily accessible so as to reduce the difficulty in gathering dispersed sustainability resources, (Boston).
  47. Expand Messaging: The office of communications will harness the power of multiple channels for ecological messaging, including local newspaper networks, city sponsored events, worship networks, traditional advertising, and provide environmental messaging in multiple languages, (Boston).
  48. Create a publicly available measurement system that provides Bostonians with access to a comprehensive accountability platform on which sustainability performance is measured, tracked, and assessed. This transparency adds accountability and furthers research opportunities, (Boston).
  49. Expand Education on Sustainability, the city will integrate sustainability and climate change concepts throughout the curriculum and in youth organizations. Further, Green Teams will be created in schools. Transition school kitchens to use only locally grown products and replace heavily processing with on-site production. Similarly, utilise Public Health resources and programs to reach out, identify issues (such as public housing issues), and introduce changes, (Boston).
  50. Encourage homeowners and businesses to green their buildings – particularly by adding insulation, energy audits and modern, efficient, technologies (newer boilers, super-insulated glazing, ventilation, solar panels). These are supported by the creation of city funded facilitators who provide advice, technical assistance, and planning help. Particular assistance is offered to photoelectric device deployment, (Brussels).
  51. Support sustainable neighborhoods, promote green adaptations on the local level, primarily driven by community organizations and volunteer groups educated, financed, and guided by city Projects include ongoing dialogues about the importance of green behavior, calls for input on future projects, education on things that can be done in one’s own home, the creation of collective vegetable and recreational gardens, local exchange and recycling/reuse strategies, and so on, (Brussels).
  52. Create a broad social competition designed to gamify energy savings through the use of infrared thermography to pinpoint heat loss and highlight savings potentials and other technologies, (Brussels).
  53. Create a public campaign to understand and raise interest in solar and energy efficient measures and introduce transparency in the electrical bill and energy consumptions bills, (Nashville).
  54. Create an “environmental education targets low-income youth” program, entitled Green Schools program, which addresses four key sustainable themes: integrated waste management, environmental health, energy efficiency and renewable energy, and climate change, (Buenos Aires).
  55. Offer training on energy issues for the skilled workforce of architects, engineers, and builders on green construction and development, (Los Angeles).
  56. Along with giving two CFL bulbs to each household, provide an educational pamphlet on saving energy, (Los Angeles).
  57. Connect everyone in the city, the inhabitants, bureaucrats, researchers, and entrepreneurs, with information about which policies and strategies they can implement are fruitful and which are not and in so doing break down the communication barrier and help a society reach a common environmental goal by learning from each other’s experience and spreading awareness among the people. This tactic has been a huge success. (Amsterdam).
  58. Create a program that promotes public reflection, participation, and education on the city’s sustainability projects and allows citizens to give their opinion to public departments while engaging in public participation, educating the public and providing an opportunity to become involved in current activities, (Los Angeles).
  59. Engage the universities in enhancing practical knowledge about sustainability issues, (Los Angeles).
  60. Promote community involvement in understanding local environmental issues, (Rio de Janeiro).
  61. Create a public forum on sustainable development to encourage and accommodate opinion about possible and future public policies, innovations and strategies from private individuals, public departments and the private sector, (Rio de Janeiro).
  62. City funds research, educational courses, training, and awareness raising at local university, (Ahmadabad).
  63. Print public environmental policies in leading newspapers to increase awareness and attract participation, (Ahmadabad).
  64. Create a program to educate citizens about waste disposal management issues, (Ahmadabad).
  65. Create and fund a community awareness program on green energy, (Perth).
  66. Runs workshops on construction of green buildings, (Perth).
  67. City runs program to increase awareness of CO2 reduction strategies, (Hiroshima).
  68. City encourages environmental consulting firms to promote, educate, and train individuals and businesses on energy efficiency issues, (Hiroshima).
  69. City works with media and NGOs to promote environmental practices in day-to-day life. (Hiroshima).
  70. Install CO2 concentration monitoring stations in various city locations, (Hiroshima).
  71. Encourage universities to help with environmental education, (Hiroshima)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           M. Incentivizing Private Sector climate strategies


  1. Establish financial incentives to reduce auto travel and motivate the use of more sustainable means of transportation, (Seattle).
  2. Support residential charging stations in homes through on-bill repayment and time-of-day funding, (Seattle).
  3. Support and encourage retrofitting of commercial buildings in the 1200 Buildings project which provides financial incentives for this work, (Melbourne).
  4. Create an energy Building Monitoring program, (Philadelphia).
  5. Create an Energy Saving Partnership between government and private sector, (Berlin).
  6. Kilowatt Crackdown program which provides training and analysis of energy issues and potential cost savings for certain commercial buildings, (Portland).
  7. Sustainable Business Tax Credit which offers up to $4000 in a tax credit to businesses that demonstrate commitment to sustainability, (Philadelphia).
  8. Support loan program for industrial companies to increase efficiency, (Minneapolis).
  9. Streamline regulatory processes for building energy efficiency and clean energy applications, (New York).
  10. Assure building owners can finance energy efficiency projects, (New York).
  11. Determine the level and types of financial investment that are needed to achieve Edmonton’s energy transition goals and a lead role in finding solutions to advance initiatives that are economically justified, (Edmonton).
  12. Create community sustainability grants to support community-based energy transition projects, (Edmonton).
  13. Finance the evaluation of ways in which Edmonton’s industrial sector can improve individual and collective environmental performance (including reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions), (Edmonton).
  14. Create a public-private scheme operating since 1990 to retrofit large groups of public buildings to improve energy efficiency and return savings to the owners/operators over a period of at least 10 years. This program saved enough energy to power 7000 households, (Berlin).
  15. Sustainable Melbourne Fund which assists local government and property owners, (Melbourne).
  16. Supporting car share by providing three free car share parks in the central city with a commitment to increase that number in response to demand, (Wellington).
  17. Create public/private partnerships in which energy service providers invest in state of art technology in large buildings (public, commercial, or residential) and share the energy savings over at least 10 years with building owners (Berlin)
  18. Create a business to business event to examine strategies to reduce GHG emissions (Wellington).
  19. Use available grants to capitalize on small scale solar, hydroelectric, urban wind farms, and geothermal power facilities. Similarly, establish funding directed towards new waste water treatment works which capture and reuse the emissions from raw sewerage and use these to generate power and heat, (Dublin).
  20. Identify financial incentives and disincentives designed to encourage ecologically sound behavior, including the introduction of congestion charges, free parking for electric vehicles, creating institutional pathways that make it easier to identify, apply for, and use Irish and EU grants for environmentally conscious sustainable energy projects (such as those from the National Development Plan. Sustainable Energy Ireland, or the Executive Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation) while the Finance Department has created a sustainable office campaign which works to reduce the time between application and funding for projects, focuses on finding new investment opportunities in green appropriate ventures, and acts as a point of contact for industry looking for advice on green projects, (Dublin).
  21. Create tax incentives for green power production and the use of electric vehicles in city business, (Dublin).
  22. Implement a Green Roofs and Green Walls program that supports installing solar panels and creates better insulation in buildings to reduce heating and cooling needs. Municipality subsidies participants. (Amsterdam).
  23. Create a program called the “circular economy” where new buildings are constructed using materials from old buildings. The program seeks to reduce, reuse and recycle construction materials and concrete. The program is called the “Green Deal” where the construction materials extracted from the demolition of old buildings are used locally within that area, (Amsterdam).
  24. The Green LA project specifies building and construction requirements to be fulfilled for any construction in the city so that environmental goals are met, the program also seeks to provide incentives to projects which exceed environmental specifications, (Los Angeles).
  25. Stop the use of incandescent lamps in any of the public building or streets and encourages private individuals to do the same. The city is providing support to exchange for LED lighting and fixtures in public spaces of building and apartments, (Los Angeles).
  26. Invest the electricity tax from the Federal University to fund environmental friendly, urban mobility and sustainable development projects and innovations for ten years in a program called as “The Energy and Development Green Fund,”(Rio de Janeiro).
  27. Provide a subsidy for EVs providing €5,000-6,000 to a business buying an electric van, and up to €40,000 to a business buying a large, heavy electric truck, (Amsterdam).
  28. Create Home Grant Insulation incentives to private owners to insulate their houses in an eco-friendly manner that provides fifteen % concession which may cost up to five thousand pounds, (Amsterdam).
  29. Collective Solar Projects Grant subsidizes mounting solar panels on buildings. The grant ranges from five hundred to five thousand pounds, (Amsterdam).
  30. Resident’s Initiative is a grant given to residents who map a plan to create a sustainable society and volunteer and contribute towards it. The grant is up to five thousand pounds, (Amsterdam).
  31. Provide that particularly innovative projects which focus on significant energy savings and green energy use are eligible for a grant is up to ten thousand pounds, (Amsterdam).
  32. Generate more green jobs and support the economy with new environment-friendly positions for which the wages of these green jobs will be high and they will also have tax redemptions, (Los Angeles).
  33. Works to attract mature green business in the city by supporting them and creating green belts and proper infrastructure for promoting such green businesses, (Los Angeles).
  34. Reduce the tax on eco-friendly consumer items and insulation measures, (Los Angeles).
  35. If a city earns significant carbon credits, give them to corporations to attract and retain them, (Ahmadabad).
  36. Promote green offices by subsidizing costs entailed by making the office green, (Perth),
  37. Create sustainable business audits funded by city, (Perth).
  38. Subsidize building loans for environmentally innovative construction, (Perth).

      .                                                                                                                                              N Funding energy transformation

  1. Offer energy rebates for efficient vehicles, energy efficiency projects, efficient appliances, and residential solar, (Austin).
  2. Offer financial incentives to install smart thermostats which allow remote adjustments thermostats on the hottest days of year, (Austin).
  3. Offer rebates on energy bills for energy-efficient retrofitting, (Calgary).
  4. Finance insulation services to low income homes which led to 1400 retrofits, (Wellington).
  5. Expand funding for energy efficiency projects, particularly the LBI Energy Efficiency project and C-Pace program, (Boston).
  6. Increase use of renewables via the judicious application of economic incentives and disincentive packages, mainly subsidies, rebates, and regulatory requirements for the use of green friendly products and renewable energy sources, (Berkeley).
  7. Expand residential solar through the Solarize program and increasing funding and reducing regulatory barriers to further adoption of solar energy, (Boston).
  8. Enhance energy use standards for existing commercial stock via a variety of local programs including SmartLights (free, independent energy efficiency consultation services and rebate opportunities for green technology adoption), Smartsolar (free consultation services related to solar adaptation), Commercial Energy Conservation Ordinance (which requires commercial properties to undergo green upgrades before sale or renovation), and the Bay Area Green Business Program (a public-utility partnership organization specializing in technical assistance, consultation, and public recognition for energy upgrade projects), (Berkeley).
  9. Retrofit the existing housing stock to reduce energy use and update the building by-laws to reflect heightened standards, funded by the Building Energy Retrofit Fund. Moreover, require annual energy benchmarking and reporting, the results of which will be made publicly available. Implement a broader zero-emission building policy, (Vancover).
  10. Implement the Energy Works program which finances energy efficiency programs in the Philadelphia area, (Philadelphia).
  11. Provide financing to help with retrofitting which saves on utility bills, (Washington).
  12. Create a fund of €465,000 to help citizens purchase electric bikes and cargo bikes, (Oslo).
  13. Provide funding of one hundred and sixty-four thousand Australian Dollars for Environment Grants and Sponsorship program for constructing solar electric car charging stations, (Perth).
  14. Create green roof economic incentives for individuals, (Rotterdam).
  15. Provide assistance in procuring green bonds to finance energy projects, the Green Bonds program, (Portland).
  16. Set a goal of retrofitting a million homes by adopting the “pay-as-you-save” model which aids Londoners to save money off their energy bills, (London).
  17. Offer rebates for home charging station installation for electric vehicles, (Austin)..
  18. Support new financing and ownership models for developing solar installation, (Minneapolis)
  19. Target funds to use in energy efficiency retrofitting, (Copenhagen)
  20. Provide Grants for high energy efficiency performance, (Minneapolis).
  21. Provide financial assistance to the private sector to accelerate adoption of energy efficiency and clean energy, (New York).
  22. Finance building upgrades by requiring building owners to pay back loans through energy savings, (Melbourne).

                                                                                                                                                       O . Cooperative government climate change strategies

  1. Involvement with the Vision Network’s Focus Cities program in which 10 cities cooperate on climate issues, (Austin).
  2. Office of sustainability creates Renewable Energy Task Force to oversee progress towards goal (Pittsburgh, PA) and works with other city departments and nonprofits to develop education tools and reduce barriers to renewable energy installation and generation, (Pittsburgh).
  3. Office of Sustainability develops tools to recognize the need for and promote installation of projects that save energy, (Pittsburgh).
  4. Work with Pennsylvania Resources Council, a non-profit organization that studies waste reduction practices, to update feasibility study of upgrading recycling and waste management, (Pittsburgh).
  5. Work with Municipalization organization to determine the feasibility of creating municipal energy systems, (Boulder),
  6. Assemble a comprehensive suite of regional climate projections, (New York).
  7. Apply a regional climate model to the NYC watershed region, (New York).
  8. Identify additional data and monitoring stations needed to track climate changes, (New York).
  9. Track improvements in climate change science, climate models, and estimates of changes in the severity, duration and frequency of weather events, (New York).
  10. Develop estimates of changes in rainfall intensities under climate change scenarios based on state of current science, (New York).
  11. Create a methodology for the City Environmental Quality Review process so that potential climate change impacts are assessed before decisions are made, (New York).
  12. Create the CitySwitch program which cooperates with other cities including Sydney on energy issues, (Melbourne).
  13. Systematic energy consumption mapping to enhance energy management, (Copenhagen).
  14. Require that municipal buildings must meet energy conservation criteria, including rented spaces, (Copenhagen).
  15. Establish an energy fund with the savings from climate upgrades to finance upcoming projects, (Copenhagen).
  16. Train all city employees on climate friendly conduct, (Copenhagen).
  17. Strive, where possible, to achieve Edmonton’s energy transition goals in partnership with other municipalities and the Province of Alberta, (Edmonton).
  18. Work collaboratively with Federal/Provincial governments to address Federal/Provincial legislation and policies that are barriers to Edmonton’s energy sustainability goals and encourage Federal/Provincial legislation and policies that support Edmonton’s energy sustainability goals, (Edmonton).
  19. Explore Federal financing mechanisms to enable private sector building retrofits, including the Department of Energy’s Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) and the Warehouse for Energy Efficiency Loans (WHEEL) through the National Association of State Energy Officials, (Austin).
  20. Work with higher levels of government to require companies, utilities, and housing industry associations to enter into agreements on climate change, (Berlin).
  21. Create an energy partnership with another city including cities in other countries to explore innovative concepts to improve energy performance, (Berlin).
  22. Work with other governments to improve sustainable procurement, resource recovery, and energy efficiency practices, (Melbourne).
  23. Create a Green City Index: A centralized database index comprised of data evaluating both Brussels’ policies and those of 30 peer European city-partners (considering 30 indicators divided into 8 broad themes related to environmental policies, , land and waste governance, transportation solutions, energy efficiency standards and consumption rates, water management, quality of building stock, emissions, and air quality) which allows the city to track its own successes and take inspiration from the successes of others, where applicable, (Brussels).
  24. Establish regional bio fuel factories which will run with the locally derived waste, (Ahmadabad).
  25. Undertaken a plan called the Green Office Plan which incentivizes offices to turn green, (Perth).

Section III. Thirty-one Conclusions from the Study.

The following are conclusions from the above analysis:

  1. Local governments can take many actions to reduce GHG emissions from their jurisdiction that do not require the government to spend significant funds including the following:
    1. Create a cooperative network among businesses, organizations, and citizens in the city or town to make voluntary GHG reductions and use this network to develop GHG reduction strategies for the local government.
    2. Make citizens aware of national, state, or regional and private sector programs that support actions to reduce GHG emissions at the local level.
    3. Encourage citizens to reduce their carbon footprint by making carbon calculators available and providing educational support in using the calculator.
    4. Provide information on how to think about the benefits and opportunities for installing solar energy.
    5. Create parking incentives for EVs and low emissions vehicles.
    6. Determine what financing support is available to increase energy efficiency of buildings.
    7. Encourage use of public transportation, bicycling, and walking,
    8. Provide education to citizens on how to reduce energy use while saving energy costs through insulation, more efficient electric devices, and prudent thermostat use.
    9. Create a climate change blog or publication that updates citizens on opportunities for reducing GHG emissions.
    10. Make citizens aware of electric utility programs that incentivize GHG emission reductions through rebates on insulation or efficient.
    11. Educate citizens about the climate benefits of tree canopy.
  2. Many cities obtain support for climate change policies by focusing on economic benefits of climate policies.
  3. Many cities have reported that implementing their GHG reduction strategies has saved money while often improving the quality of life and creating jobs.
  4. Because implementing GHG reduction strategies often saves money, a barrier to implementing GHG strategies is often not the will to take action but the capital needed to fund reduction steps. For this reason, many local governments have worked to find attractive financing to support business and citizen actions to reduce GHG emissions.
  5. Most local governments have worked cooperatively with local private sector organizations to reduce GHG emissions from within the jurisdiction of the local government.
  6. What local governments are able to commit to is sometimes a function of the willingness of higher levels of government to support local government efforts.
  7. Increasing the use and quality of public transportation is an important strategy for most cities.
  8. Many cities have encouraged citizens to reduce their carbon footprint by encouraging and educating citizens about how to calculate their carbon footprint. Some cities have encouraged citizens to reduce their carbon footprint by a certain amount such as one ton per year or by 10%.
  9. Several cities including New York report that working with citizens on climate strategies is a key to developing a robust GHG reduction strategy.
  10. The range of strategies in this paper reflect differences in distinct cultural, political, and social context, differences in population size, growth rates, control over energy supply, and relationship to higher levels of regional or national government. Some small local governments have little control over matters that larger local governments have and thus are more subservient to higher levels of government. The city of Austin, for instance, controls the electricity supplied to the city and has 448,000 electricity accounts in the greater Austin area and thus has potential better control over GHG emissions from electricity than other cities. On the other hand, cities in which electric utilities have been privatized have less control. Austin has been able to sign contracts with wind providers from different parts of Texas that can provide wind power throughout the day thus diminishing the need to supplement electricity from fossil fuel sources. Austin is in a stronger position than many cities in managing electricity use by managing a smart grid and thermostat use.
  11. Many cities are beginning to incentivize a transformation of vehicles from fossil fuel to electricity. Austin, for instance, has installed over 100 EV charging stations at parking stations reserved for EVs.
  12. Most cities are working to make it easier to use bicycles for transportation, In Austin, for instance, in four years of operation the city’s bicycle sharing scheme, 400,000 trips have been made.
  13. Those cities that create partnerships with the private sector are in a better position to reduce GHG emissions. A standout program offered by Austin in this category is the Green Business Leaders Progam. Currently it has 214 members from 10 different business sectors, representing almost 40,000 employees and incorporating over 15.5m square feet of office space.
  14. An important strategy for all local governments is education for citizens and the private sector about climate change issues. Austin, as an example. has developed a public communication program, about climate change issues and the city’s mitigation strategies. Its website includes impressive detail about all of its strategies, and its governance around sustainability.
  15. More and more cities are committing to and planning to achieve zero carbon by 2050 at least in the electricity sector.
  16. Many European cities including Berlin and Copenhangen have transformed transportation options to make public transportation, cycling, and walking attractive.
  17. Many cities rely on private-public partnerships to reduce GHG emissions as well as collaboration with higher levels of government.
  18. Many local governments have little control over the electricity supplier for the government For instance, the only impact Calgary can have on the electricity supply is through lobbying the provincial government to take steps to increase the proportion of renewables in Alberta and in encouraging generation powered by renewables within its jurisdiction, These governments must collaborate with higher levels of government to achieve greater use of renewables by electricity providers.
  19. Almost all local governments can reduce energy use through improved lighting strategies while saving money. Calgary is retrofitting its street lighting with LEDs and will complete 80,000 of its 90,000 lamps by the end of 2018. It is projected to reduce the City of Calgary’s energy consumption by 10%, saving the city some $5million per annum.
  20. Almost all local governments can save money by improving building energy efficiency.
  21. Many cities are aggressively creating incentives for the use of EVs. Norway has the highest number of EVs in the world, with more than 400,000. In 2016 nearly 40% of newly registered cars were EVs and the government plans to phase out all fossil-fueled cars by 2025. EVs in Norway are particularly effective because they are charged solely from renewable sources. In Oslo there are about 30,000, up from 4,000 in 2012. Oslo has an extensive free charging infrastructure with over 1,000 charging stations in both the city center and neighborhoods
  22. Like Calgary and Melbourne, Oslo has also converted its street lamps to LEDs. However it has gone further by creating a new lighting control system that dims lamps to a minimal level until they are activated by the approach of a vehicle or pedestrian.
  23. A particularly innovative strategy has been the construction of a district heating networks, using bio-gas produced by city waste.
  24. Many cities have developed tools for citizens to help them calculate their carbon footprint and increase knowledge of energy use. Wellington has developed an energy calculator, available online. Many resources are available on the web to help citizens reduce their footprint. See, for example
  25. Many cities have created communities of citizens and businesses that work together to reduce GHG emissions. By creating a community whose stated goal is emissions reductions, cities harnesses the complimentary powers of positive peer-pressure and failure induced
  26. Most cities can reduce the effect of GHG emissions by improving urban tree canopy This popular strategy involves the reclamation and greenification of urban spaces via the planting of native tree species. The benefits of such projects vastly exceed the costs and have the added benefit of being extremely simple to implement, manage, and measure.
  27. Each of the cities in question has emphasized the importance of creating a vibrant green economic sector. Both Boston and Vancouver have placed special emphasis on leveraging their significant research and tech resources for green development and economic stimulus, while Dublin, Berkeley, and Durban all have pointed to the significance of green
  28. The policy with the greatest impact to residential energy efficiency is the use of the package of home upgrades available on the market (primarily insulation and upgrading of older appliances), the widescale adoption of which is inhibited only by lack of funding.
  29. Environmental focuses on education create a groundswell of support for environmental projects, volunteerism, and
  30. As with nations devolving power to cities, so to with cities developing power to community groups, NGOs, charities, and other non-governmental organizations concerned with alleviating climate change is an effective strategy.
  31. Many cities have preferred encouraging behavioral change via the creation and promotion of environmentally conscious norms to the deployment and policing of regulation and policy. They prefer an approach that focuses on behavioral modification and norm adjustment rather than a reliance on governmental coercion.. They’re all carrot, little stick. Ultimately that would seem the most important strategy. Inspire people, business, and communities to pursue emissions reductions as a social good and emissions outputs will drop.



[2] AFP, Ethiopia to cut carbon emissions by two-thirds by 2030, PHYS.ORG (2015),

[3] Bus Rapid Transit System” Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation


[5] Office of Sustainability City of Austin, Final Austin Community Climate Plan, 2, (2015).

[6] Id. at 24.

[7] Berkeley: The Berkeley Climate Action Plan,

[8] PIK, Climate-Neutral Berlin 2050 Results of a Feasibility Study, BE BERLIN (2014),

[9] Compact of Mayors “Compact Cities” (3 June, 2017),  Bogota < >

[10] Greenovate Boston, 2014 Climate Action Plan Update.

[11] City of Boulder Colorado, (last visited March 26, 2017).

[12] City of Boulder Colorado, (last visited March 26, 2017).

[13] City of Boulder Colorado, (last visited March 26, 2017).

[14] “-Capitale: Action Plan in a Nutshell”, accessible at

[15] Compact of Mayors: “Compact Cities” (3 Jun, 2017) Buenos Aires < >

[16]2015 – Cities Emissions Reduction Targets” CDP (2016) <;

[17] Chicago Climate Action Plan (2008).

[18] CPH 2025: a Green, Smart and Carbon Neutral City (September 2012).

[19]   “Dublin City Sustainable Energy Action Plan 2010-2020” accessible at

[20] protection/Publications/Documents/Sustainability%20Best%20Practice%20Climate%20Change.pdf

[21] The City of Edmonton Energy Transition Strategy – 2016 Annual Report (2016)

[22] Kae Murakami “City of Hiroshima” Energy and Global Warming Prevention Department Environment Bureau

[23]   Mayor of London Delivering London’s Energy Future: The Mayor’s Climate Change Mitigation and EnergyStrategy (October 2011)

[24] Los Angeles Climate Action Report: Updated 1990 Baseline and 2013 Emissions Inventory Summary” Plan Environment Economy Equity,

[25] Zero Net Emissions by 2020 – Update 2014 , (2014),

[26] Minneapolis Climate Action Plan: a roadmap to reducing citywide greenhouse gas emissions (2013).

[27] Office of Mayor Megan Barry, “Livable Nashville: Committee Draft Recommendations” (2017), available at

[28] Emily Lloyd, The New York City Department of Environmental Protection Climate Change Program 11 (Report 1 2008).

[29] New York City Mayor’s Office of Sustainability New York Cities Roadmap 80×50 (2015)

[30] “2015 – Cities Emissions Reduction Targets”, above n 14, and “Host and Participant City Profiles”, above


[32] Hahn, Jonathan. Oslo Moves Forward with Climate Budget for Achieving Carbon Neutrality in 2020,, 14 Nov 2016. (Last visited 31 March 2017

[33] Drexel , Options for Achieving Deep Reductions in Carbon Emissions in Philadelphia by 2050 (2014), file:///C:/Users/tyler/AppData/Local/Temp/Reducing%20GHG%20in%20Philadelphia.pdf.

[34] Miriam Parson & John Jameson, Pittsburgh Climate Action Plan 2.0  (Aurora Sharrard et al. eds., 2.0 ed. 2012).

[35] Climate Action Plan – Local Strategies to address climate change 2015, City of Portland (2015),

[37] Suzana Kahn and Isabel Brandão “The contribution of low-carbon cities to Brazil’s greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals Briefing on urban energy use and greenhouse gas emissions” (November 2015) Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)


[39] San Francisco department of the Environment, (last visited March 26, 2017).

[40] San Francisco Department of the Environment, (last visited March 26, 2017).

[41] Seattle Office of Sustainability & Environment, Seattle Climate Action Guide, 6, (2015).


[43] International Carbon Action Partnership China-Shenzhen Pilot System (May 3, 2017) at 1.

[44] Climate Action Tracker “Singapore” (November 2, 2016) < >

[45] Stockholm Action Plan for Climate and Energy 2010-2020.

[46] City of Sydney, Carbon Reduction: Energy, 3 Nov 2016,

[47] City of Sydney, National Carbon Offset Standard: Carbon Neutral Program Public Disclosure Summary, 4,, (2016).

[48] Id.

[49] City of Sydney, Renewable Energy, 12 August 2016,

[50] Compact of Mayors “Quito” Compact of Mayors “Quito” < >


[52] “Wellington” Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy (2015)

[53] “Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets” Wellington City Council

[54] City of Yokohama Action Plan for Global Warming Countermeasures: Summary Version (March 2014) at 3; Yokohama: Smart City Project <>.


By Donald A. Brown,

For a hard copy of the report, send request to

2 thoughts on “The Enormous Potential of Cities to Reduce GHG Emissions, 571 Strategies Adopted by 44 Cities Around the World

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